The three main research objectives that contribute to the overall aim of this ITN are: 1: Reconstruct the deep history of Europe’s cultural landscapes and corresponding changes in coupled human-nature interactions within subsequent human energy regimes and their transitions. 2: Rethink the outcomes of human environmental interactions over the past three energy regimes (Fig. 1.1) on the present-day landscape in Europe, in order to inform future energy transitions from a long-term environmental and social perspective. 3: Design landscape management strategies, i) provide scientific guidance on threats and opportunities for natural and cultural values of Europe’s landscapes, ii) define criteria for assisted restoration of ecosystems of former (abandoned) agricultural areas, and iii) to generate future scenarios for cultural landscape change, with integrated landscape, cultural heritage and biodiversity models, to inform current planning initiatives, e.g. for the transition to a low-carbon society.